The March 11, 1737 Charles of Bourbon began building the “Real Teatro San Carlo,” one of the largest and most beautiful theaters in Europe. The Theatre, soon became centers not only of events designed to indoctrinate and to ingratiate himself with the court and most wealthy subjects, but also numerous political rallies. The project of ‘massive work was entrusted to the sergeant of the royal armies, Giovanni Antonio Medrano, the same, cost the coffers of the Neapolitan monarchy to 100,000 ducats (equal to 1 million 600 thousand euros today), and was completed in just 8 months. The theater was opened November 4, 1737 the day the San Carlo opera “Achilles in Scyros” and its builder, Angelo Carasale, it was the contractor until 1741. Later, around 1767 or so, Ferdinand I of Bourbon, on the occasion of his marriage with Maria Carolina of Austria, instructed the architect. Ferdinando Fuga to renovate the interior of the theater, in fact, were added eight proscenium boxes between the pillars of the proscenium, were changed, the decorations, crystals were added to the mirror in the hall and a cornice on the last row of boxes. In 1799, during the Neapolitan Republic, the monument was renamed “National Theatre”. Its renovation began on November 4, 1809 with the aim of building a factory in front of the entrance to the theater. Following a fire, which occurred a few years later, the work was inaugurated and presented to the public January 12, 1817 with the opera “Partenope’s dream.” Only in 1822, King Ferdinand I of Bourbon gave the game rooms at the Theatre Royal Academy of knights to be able to play receptions and social events. In 1840 finally the structure was equipped with gas lighting. In 1875 a Technical Committee, appointed by the City Council to express an opinion on the static conditions of the theater, he reported that while the walls were in great condition, the roof trusses, because of the abundant infiltration of water, in danger of collapse. Later in the work, namely October 14, 1887, the work was sold, together with the Teatro Mercadante, the municipality of Naples. After a century of continuous activity, thankfully, November 23, 1980, the year of the earthquake in Campania – Lucania, no damage resulted in determining the closure of the theater. Even today the theater is the pride of the old city with its 368 operations jobs, faces in the years to preserve and, above all, to convert it into a planet’s most beautiful opera house.